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A man with broad shoulders and a hearty laugh, Carnell was both a painter and a minister. With a family history of violence and loss, Carnell preached about redemption and God’s good grace. Born in Beckley, West Virginia to a troubled coal mining family, Carnell and his sister Doretha (Alfred Hair's wife) experienced great tragedy in their early years.

Carnell's father, Allison Smith was a heavy drinker and would often get violent after a night of drinking. On June 13th, 1959, while Carnell and his siblings were home, he killed Carnell's mother. Soon after his mother died, Carnell and his six siblings went to Fort Pierce to live with his older sister, Christine, who worked at the segregated bus station as a cook. She was 21 years old at the time and had three children of her own to raise. An aunt and uncle who also lived in Fort Pierce helped out as they could. Carnell studied at Lincoln Park Academy where his art teacher, Zanobia Jefferson, introduced him to painting. After a while Carnell went to live with his sister Doretha and her husband Alfred Hair on Dunbar street.

Like other teens in Fort Pierce, Carnell picked grapefruit and oranges on the weekends and during the summers. Looking for some connection and acceptance, he got involved with a bad crowd. “I needed somebody,” Carnell explained. Arrested and sent to jail a few times as a juvenile, he said when he got locked up he would cry to go home. The older prisoners would mimic him, making fun of his weakness.

Carnell, known around town as Pete, Pete came by way of an incident soon after he moved to Fort Pierce when he and some friends were skinny-dipping and were caught by police. The boys scattered, but one officer yelled, “Halt!” at Smith. Afraid, Smith ran away as fast as he could, escaping the officer. The local newspaper ran a story about the incident the next day. The police officer apparently known as being the fleetest of foot on the force, but not quick enough to catch the unidentified naked boy he was chasing. The officer referred to the boy who got away as “Quick Peter,” and from then on, Smith was called “Pete.”

Carnell continued to get into trouble. The last time he got caught and went to court, the judge sent his friends to prison. The judge then explained to Carnell that he believed he came from a good home, and because of that, he would be sent home. He was then warned that if he ever saw his face in court again, he too, would be sent to prison. Carnell never forgot that. In retrospect, he believed God was looking after him.

Although Alfred Hair was only nine years older than Carnell, he became a father figure to him. He often went with Hair to visit Bean Backus in his studio. He watched Alfred learn from his mentor. Alfred made a difference in Carnell’s life. He was happy living with Alfred and Doretha. He felt part of something good. Soon after Hair began painting for money, Carnell became involved in the business. Alfred was his teacher. At the age of fourteen, he started making frames. He was either paid for the frames he made or the money was used to help pay for his room and board. Alfred was a patient teacher. When something was done incorrectly, he simply gave more instruction.

When Alfred’s paintings began selling so well that he couldn’t produce them fast enough alone, Carnell and Doretha were enlisted to paint the backgrounds. At first Alfred mixed the colors and sketched out the landscapes. Once they got good at blending hues and creating the correct mood, they were taught to mix colors. Alfred would then finish the paintings. Before long, Carnell and Doretha were working more independently. Livingston Roberts, Sam Newton, and Lemuel Newton were often at the house on Dunbar Street.

Although he was younger than many of the painters who gathered to paint, Carnell was accepted as one of the group. Like the others, he went on the road to sell the paintings, traveling to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Pompano, Bradenton, and Sarasota. He stayed in the black motels, which were easy to find because they were placed by the railroad tracks in the black communities. He sold works by Hair, Livingston Roberts, and sometimes the Newton’s, as well as his own.

In 1970, when Alfred Hair was shot and killed at Eddie’s Bar, Carnell lost a strong stabilizing presence in his life. Like so many others, he grieved deeply. Doretha and Carnell tried to pick up the pieces of their lives together. They painted the foregrounds of the landscapes that Alfred would have painted had he lived. They started painting their own pictures.

Carnell and his family moved to West Palm Beach where he began to reflect on his life. One day, some friends invited him to church. He had prayed before as his mother had taught him, but he had never felt the power of God the way he did on that day. He knew he needed something that could show him his path in life. He asked God to come into his heart. He explained, “It was energizing; it was like love that I have never felt before. The hurt was coming out and the love was coming in.” He felt as if he was being held, and he wept. Carnell’s life took a turn for the better.

In 1974 he married his first wife, Daisy. Together they had four boys and one girl. Carnell studied at Nova University for a year, and then learned to install and fix electrical wiring at North Tech Institute. However, he soon understood that his life’s work was as a minister. He went back to school and received an associate’s degree in Biblical Studies and a bachelor’s degree in Ministry from Canon Bible College and Seminary University in Orlando. He was later awarded an honorary doctorate in Life Skills and eventually earned a doctoral degree in Theology from the United International Chaplain School. His ministry extends to hospitals and prisons. He described his religion as being Pentecostal or Charismatic, but said he was basically nondenominational, as he ministered to anyone in need. Carnell Smith was living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with his second wife, LaFayettra, ministering to his congregation, when he passed away December 15, 2015, after a long, hard and courageous battle with cancer.

Smith’s often shared his inspirational story from the pulpit. It signaled a life of transformation. He continued to paint the landscapes of his youth, scenes of tranquility and calm. Carnell Smith found peace. In telling his story, he often proclaimed with delight, “Look how God works.”

Biographies are adapted from those on, one of the earliest informative websites on the Florida Highwaymen. Since the site is no longer active, we have provided them here.

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